Is world government good or bad? World government just seems to be a natural extension of federal government among states, as is federal government a natural extension of state government among counties. So to the extent that federal government is good among states, why not world government among countries? If having a federal government prevented war among the states in the US, by establishing an ultimate authority, could we not prevent war among countries?
In a state of nature, sovereigns must build defenses if they are to protect their sovereignty (property and persons). But due to the economies of scale of violence, along with division of labor, it is more and more economical for sovereigns to be bigger and bigger. The larger governments become, the smaller a fraction of their economies do they have to devote to armies to protect against other sovereigns under other governments.
Once there is a world government, there will be no need for armies to protect from foreign sovereigns, since there will be none. Only large enough force to control any insurrection or rebellion within its jurisdiction. This can no doubt make the world as a whole more productive, as more capital can be devoted away from instruments of war. Also, we can hope to never again have world war.
Just as the founders of the US realized the lack of efficacy of the Articles of Confederation due to lack of enforcement, a lack of ultimate authority, the lack of efficacy of world organizations like the UN are due to the same reasons.
Obviously world government, without accountability, is just as horrific to its subjects as any government or tyrant without accountability. And in the case of world government, potentially human civilization ending, 1984 style horrific. Constructing a world constitution is critical to the feasibility of a productive world government.
The times have changed where we cannot take a practical Lockean perspective of rebellion by force being a feasible check on government. Now there are such instruments of war coupled with surveillance, that rebellion is no longer feasible among the populace. Constitutions are rather much more feasible instruments to protect against the perils of government. However, we must be very careful in giving up our sovereignty to a world government in making sure it is to be held to account. But if we are successful, we can end war and devote our resources to humanity’s growth. Of course, we’ll still have to fight out our disagreements in the political process.